Hipatia

Biblioteca de acceso libre con materiales sobre antropología, complejidad y caos.

Archivos para Artículos

Mark S. Granovetter – La fuerza de los vínculos débiles

Un fallo fundamental de la actual teoría sociológica es que no relaciona de forma convincente las interacciones a un nivel micro con los modelos de nivel macro. Los grandes estudios estadísticos, al igual que los cualitativos, ofrecen una buena muestra de investigación acerca de fenómenos macro como la movilidad social, la organización de la comunidad y la estructura política. A nivel micro, y cada vez más, un gran banco de datos y teorías ofrece útiles y brillantes ideas sobre lo que sucede o acontece dentro de los confines de un grupo pequeño. Pero el modo de interaccionar los grupos pequeños hasta formar un modelo a gran
escala nos despista, nos aleja en muchos casos.
En este artículo sostendré que el análisis de los procesos en los sistemas interpersonales nos proporciona el puente micro-macro más fructífero. De un modo u otro, es a través de estos sistemas como la interacción a pequeña escala se convierte en grandes modelos, y estos, a su vez, se reconvierten en pequeños grupos.

Michael Agar – We Have Met the Other and We’re All Nonlinear: Ethnography as a Nonlinear Dynamic System

“Ethnography” and “Social Science” have always had an awkward relationship. As
far as research practice goes, ethnographers often feel that they have more in
common with investigative reporters,
historians, and intelligence analysts
than they do with colleagues in sociology
and economics. The usual social research
chant of “theory/hypothesis/measurement/
sampling design/significance
level” does not describe much of what
ethnographers do.
For an ethnographer, what’s interesting is the discovery of connections. A holistic
perspective is foundational for anthropology, sort of a proto-systems theory, which
helps explain why two anthropologists, Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead, participated
in the post-World War II conference that founded cybernetics.
It’s not that ordinary social science isn’t allowed to look for connections. It’s that
ordinary social science begins with variables already given by some theory, and then
tries to figure out how to locate, decontextualize, and measure those variables. A
card-carrying holist notices a “variable” in a situation, maybe one that he/she had
never thought about before, but then he/she wonders what other things it might be
connected with, in that situation and outside of it. The goal is to build patterns of
many interacting things that include what was noticed, not to isolate what one was
supposed to notice and measure it.
“Ethnography” and “Social Science” have always had an awkward relationship. As far as research practice goes, ethnographers often feel that they have more in common with investigative reporters, historians, and intelligence analysts than they do with colleagues in sociology and economics. The usual social research chant of “theory/hypothesis/measurement/sampling design/significance level” does not describe much of what ethnographers do. For an ethnographer, what’s interesting is the discovery of connections. A holistic perspective is foundational for anthropology, sort of a proto-systems theory, which helps explain why two anthropologists, Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead, participated in the post-World War II conference that founded cybernetics. It’s not that ordinary social science isn’t allowed to look for connections. It’s that ordinary social science begins with variables already given by some theory, and then tries to figure out how to locate, decontextualize, and measure those variables. A card-carrying holist notices a “variable” in a situation, maybe one that he/she had never thought about before, but then he/she wonders what other things it might be connected with, in that situation and outside of it. The goal is to build patterns of many interacting things that include what was noticed, not to isolate what one was supposed to notice and measure it.
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Michael Agar – Bio
Michael Agar received his undergraduate degree from Stanford and his Ph.D. in linguistic anthropology from the Language-Behavior Research Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley. An honorary Woodrow Wilson Fellow, NIH Career Award recipient, and currently Fulbright Senior Specialist, he is professor emeritus at the University of Maryland, College Park, with adjunct appointments in Speech Communication and Comparative Literature, as well as an associate at Antropokaos at the University of Buenos Aires in Argentina. He was recently appointed Distinguished Scholar at the International Institute of Qualitative Methods at the University of Alberta. Visit: www.ethknoworks.com

Grupo Antropocaos, “Teorías de la Complejidad y el Caos en Ciencias Sociales. Modelos Basados en Agentes y Sociedades Artificiales.” (2005)

Abstract, En este trabajo presentaremos algunas ideas en torno a la relación entre las teorías de la complejidad y las ciencias sociales. Es nuestra intención focalizar en los alcances y límites de algunos modelos que surgen de estos marcos conceptuales. En primer lugar haremos una breve introducción vinculada a la historia de este espacio de investigación no unificado, que cuenta con diversas variantes como ser Modelos Basados en Agentes, Teoría de Juegos, etc. Nuestro enfoque priorizará la continuidad conceptual de ciertas nociones que servirán de base para la exhibición posterior de algunos ejemplos pertinentes. Específicamente nos referiremos a los modelos basados en agentes, una clase de modelos de simulación cuyas principales características son la generación de propiedades emergentes (no deducibles del comportamiento individual de los actores), la interacción local con información parcial por parte de los agentes intervinientes y la sensibilidad a las condiciones iniciales.Dentro de este marco abordaremos las sociedades artificiales, un caso especial de los modelos basados en agentes caracterizado por la emulación de fenómenos sociales. Nuestro propósito ulterior es, más allá de las reflexiones inducidas por esta casuística, incorporar un herramienta metodológica capaz de abordar procesos socioculturales desde una perspectiva hasta ahora marginal en la Antropología.

Robert Axelrod, “Advancing the Art of Simulation in the Social Sciences.” (1997)

Abstract.  Advancing the state of the art of simulation in the social sciences requires appreciating the unique value of simulation as a third way of doing science, in contrast to both induction and deduction. Simulation can be an effective tool for discovering surprising consequences of simple assumptions. This essay offers advice for doing simulation research, focusing on the programming of a simulation model, analyzing the results sharing the results, and replicating other people’s simulations. Finally, suggestions are offered for building of a community of social scientists who do simulation.